Jean Pfaelzer is Professor of English and American Studies at the University of Delaware. This feature is adapted from Driven Out: the Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans by her. From The Globalist:
On September 19, 1892, the presidents of the Chinese Six Companies, initially organizations of Chinese merchants established in major cities across the United States, ordered all 110,000 Chinese immigrants in the United States to commit mass civil disobedience.
Red leaflets appeared on the walls and windows of Chinatowns throughout the country commanding Chinese to defy the new Geary Act that required Chinese residents to carry a photo identification card to prove that they were legal immigrants. [Full Text]