关于同性恋人权

公民社会给国家人权行动计划的建议

 

北京爱知行研究所


20081129
发布

 

 

 

2008114新华社报道,中国政府正在着手制定《国家人权行动计划》。报道指出,该《国家人权行动计划》将通过全面系统地制定、落实促进和保障人权的工作目标及措施,进一步改善我国人权状况,全面推进我国人权事业发展,促进社会和谐。
[]
在此报道中,我们没有看见关于同性恋人群、不同性倾向和性别认同人群的信息。诚然,媒体的报道可能不能涵盖该计划的全部或者大多数内容,但是我们依然希望政府和相关职能部门能够尽量多的听取民间社会的呼声,与此同时,能够在计划拟定过程中公开相关进展情况。

关于同性恋和不同性倾向、性别认同人群的人权保护问题已经在世界范围内呈现出极大的发展趋势。2006
11月,在印度尼西亚日惹举办的国际法学专家会议上,通过的旨在将国际人权法应用到性倾向和性别认同相关问题的《日惹原则》,已经于20073 26日在联合国人权理事会会议期间发布并在会议上介绍。同时,各个国家的立法也开始不断的注意到这些人群的人权问题。通过立法和政策制定来消除对同性恋人群、不同性倾向和性别认同人群的歧视、改善这一人群的社会地位和生存状况已经成了构建和谐社会的一项新的使命。

 

 

正确认识同性恋和拥有不同性倾向、性别认同的人群

 

“性倾向(sexual orientation )”是指每个人对异性、同性或多种性别的人发自内心的情感、爱情和性吸引,并与之发生亲密关系和性关系的能力。“性别认同”是指每个人对性别深切的内心感觉和个人体验,可能与出生时被认定的性别一致或不一致,这包括对身体的个人感觉(如果能够自由选择的话,这可能包括用医学、手术或其他方法改变身体外观和功能)和其他性别表达包括衣着、言语和独特的行为举止。
[]
对于同性恋来说,虽然历史上针对其有各种各样的偏见和歧视,但是,近年来,随着科学的进步和社会大众认识水平的提高,同性恋问题已经不再是一个隐秘的话题。世界卫生组织1992年在修改后的第十版《国际疾病分类》中将同性恋从成人人格与行为障碍的名单上删除了,并声明“性倾向本身并不能被认为是障碍”。中华精神科学会2001年发布的《中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准》第三版已不再将同性恋本身划归为病态。

 

为什么要保护同性恋和拥有不同性倾向、性别认同人群的人权

 

所有人生而自由,平等享有尊严和权利,每个人都有权享有人权,不受任何种类的区别对待。在这其中,同样包括不应对不同性倾向和性别认同人群的区别对待。

世界各地由于人们的性倾向和性别认同而针对他们的暴力、骚扰、歧视、排斥、污名和偏见,基于性别、种族、年龄、宗教、残疾、健康和经济地位的歧视破坏了受虐待者的完整和尊严,削弱了他们的自尊和对社群的归属感,导致许多人隐瞒或压抑自己的认同并过着恐惧和不可见的生活。
[]
在我们国家,由于历史和社会的原因,致使同性恋人群和拥有不同性倾向和性别认同的人群同样遭受着各种各样的歧视和污名。

 

同性恋和拥有不同性倾向、性别认同人群的人权保护所涉及的领域

 

n  
平等和非歧视的权利

基于性倾向或性别认同的歧视包括任何基于性倾向或性别认同的区别对待、排斥、限制或偏袒,其目的或后果是取消或损害法律面前人人平等,受到法律的平等保护。因此,应该在政策和法律范围内完善对这一人群在就业、入学、获得社会保障等领域的保护。

n  
对个人的尊重和人身安全的保障

首先应该从法律和制度层面上完善对这一人群的隐私保护,尊重其基本的人生尊严;其次,在职能部门执法的过程中应该从实际情况出发,尊重这一人群的基本权利。不得因为其不同性倾向和不同性别认同而给予羞辱和不当惩罚。

n  
创造正确的教育环境

   
在教育的问题上,我们国家的教育制度往往回避同性恋和不同性倾向、性别认同的问题,很多情况下还会产生出一些不符合科学的错误教学手段和方式。因此,应该:

确保教育的目标是让每个学生的人格、天赋、以及精神和身体能力向最充分发挥其潜能的方向发展,并且回应所有性倾向和性别认同的学生的需要;确保教育的目标是以理解、和平、宽容和平等的精神发展对人权的尊重和对每个儿童的父母和家庭成员,文化认同,语言和价值的尊重,考虑和尊重不同性倾向和性别认同;确保教育方法、课程和资源适用于提高对不同性倾向和性别认同的理解和尊重,包括对学生、父母和家庭成员与之有关的特殊需要的理解和尊重;确保法律和政策为不同性倾向和性别认同的学生、员工和教师提供适当的保护,使他们免遭学校环境中各种形式的社会排斥和暴力,包括欺凌和骚扰;确保受到这些排斥或暴力的学生不会因为保护而被边缘化或隔离,确保用参与分享的方式来识别和尊重其最佳利益。

n  
表达自由的权利

   
我们国家有关新闻出版的相关法律和政策规定长期以来将同性恋相关话题作为禁止内容,这在一定程度上妨碍了言论自由和表达的权利。因此:

应当开放新闻出版、广播电视和互联网上对同性恋内容的限制,确保同性恋者可以自由表达意见和获取信息。确保人们在尊重他人的权利和自由的同时充分享受意见和表达自由,包括接受和传播与性倾向和性别认同有关的信息和意见的自由,以及与之有关的宣传合法权利,资料出版,广播,组织和参加会议,传播和获得安全性知识的自由,不受基于性倾向和性别认同的歧视。

n  
支持同性恋社会组织的发展

在我们国家,目前同性恋社会组织在各个地方得到了极大的发展,这对于同性恋相关人群的自我认同、互帮互助起到了十分积极的作用。因此:

应当支持男女同性恋者的社会组织发展,为男女同性恋者社会组织开展健康教育、社会支持和法律援助工作提供政治经济支持。

n  
履行政府职责,促进国际合作

落实联合国人权宣言和公约的精神,特别是参考《日惹原则》的精神,国家人权行动计划包含保护我国男女同性恋者和跨性别人权的内容。

n  
在联合国层面的各项决议和声明中,支持基于性倾向和性别认同的人权保护

特别是,200812月中旬,在联合国大会上,目前已经有50多个成员国同意签署由法国提出的一项相关不同性倾向和性别认同人权侵害的联合声明。200812月是世界人权宣言发表60周年,在这一历史时刻,该联合声明旨在重申人权是所有人类成员的人权,包括男女同性恋者、双性恋者、跨性别人士和两性人。

 

联合声明要点如下:

 

联合声明中文

 

我们很荣幸地代表[……]做出这一关于人权、性倾向和性别认同的声明

 

1 – 如同宣布所有人类生而自由,平等享有尊严和权利的《世界人权宣言》——今年是该宣言发表60周年——第1条中所昭示的那样,我们重申人权的普遍性原则;

2 –
如同《世界人权宣言》第2条和《、政治、经济、社会和文化权利国际公约》第2条及《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》第26条中所陈述的那样,我们重申所有人都有权享有人权,不受任何种类
——如种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政治观点或其他观点、国家或社会出身、财产、血统或其他身份——的区别对待;

3 –
我们重申要求将所有人权平等应用于所有人类,无论其性倾向或性别认同如何的非歧视原则;

4 – 我们深切关注基于性倾向和性别认同的侵犯人权和基本自由的现象;

5 –
我们还对世界各国由于性倾向或性别认同而针对人们的暴力、骚扰、歧视、排斥、污名化和偏见,以及这些做法破坏了遭受这些虐待者的完整性和尊严感到不安;

6 –
我们谴责基于性倾向和性别认同的侵犯人权行为,无论这些行为发生在哪里,尤其是以此为由使用死刑,法外处决、即审即决或任意处决,酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚的做法,任意逮捕或拘留,以及剥夺经济、社会和文化权利,包括健康权;

7 –
我们回想起2006年,五十四个国家在人权理事会面前发言,请求理事会主席提供一个未来在适当的理事会会议上讨论这些侵犯人权行为的机会;

8 –
我们赞赏人权理事会特别程序和条约机构对这些问题给予的关注,并且鼓励他们继续将对基于性倾向和性别认同的侵犯人权事件的考虑纳入其有关权限中;

9 –
我们欢迎美洲国家组织大会在其2008年6月3日的第38次会议上通过了关于
、性倾向与性别认同的AG/RES. 2435 (XXXVIII-O/08)决议;

10 –
我们呼吁所有国家和有关国际人权机制致力于促进和保护所有人
——无论其性倾向或性别认同如何——的人权;

11 – 我们敦促各国采取所有必要的措施——尤其是立法或行政措施——以确保性倾向或性别认同在任何情况下都不会成为刑事处罚——尤其是处决、逮捕或拘留——的根据;

12 –
我们敦促各国确保基于性倾向和性别认同的侵犯人权行为受到调查,犯罪者为此承担责任,受到法律的制裁;

13 –
我们敦促各国确保对人权捍卫者有足够的保护,并且消除妨碍他们就人权与性倾向和性别认同问题开展工作的障碍。

 

联合声明英文

 

We have
the honour to make this statement
on human rights, sexual
orientation and gender identity
on behalf of […]

 

1 – We
reaffirm the principle of universality of human rights, as
enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights whose 60th
anniversary is celebrated this year, Article 1 of which proclaims
that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and
rights”;

 

2 – We
reaffirm that everyone is entitled to the enjoyment of human rights
without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social
origin, property, birth or other status, as set out in Article 2 of
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 2 of the
International Covenants on Civil and Political, Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights, as well as in article 26 of the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;

 

3 – We
reaffirm the principle of non-discrimination which requires that
human rights apply equally to every human being regardless of
sexual orientation or gender identity;

 

4 – We
are deeply concerned by violations of human rights and fundamental
freedoms based on sexual orientation or gender identity;

 

5
We are also disturbed
that violence, harassment, discrimination, exclusion,
stigmatisation and prejudice are directed against persons in all
countries in the world because of sexual orientation or gender
identity, and that these practices undermine the integrity and
dignity of those subjected to these abuses;

 

6 –
We condemn the human rights
violations based on sexual orientation or gender identity wherever
they occur, in particular the use of the death penalty on this
ground, extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the
practice of torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading
treatment or punishment, arbitrary arrest or detention and
deprivation of economic, social and cultural rights, including the
right to health;

 

7 – We
recall the statement in 2006 before the Human Rights Council by
fifty four countries requesting the President of the Council to
provide an opportunity, at an appropriate future session of the
Council, for discussing these violations;

 

8 – We
commend the attention paid to these issues by special procedures of
the Human Rights Council and treaty bodies and encourage them to
continue to integrate consideration of human rights violations
based on sexual orientation or gender identity within their
relevant mandates;

 

9 – We
welcome
the adoption of Resolution
AG/RES. 2435 (XXXVIII-O/08) on “Human Rights,
Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity” by the General Assembly of
the Organization of American States during its 38th
session in 3 June 2008;

 

10 – We
call upon all States and relevant international human rights
mechanisms to commit to promote and protect human rights of all
persons, regardless of sexual orientation and gender
identity;

 

11
We urge States to take all the necessary measures,
in particular legislative or administrative, to ensure that sexual
orientation or gender identity may under no circumstances be the
basis for criminal penalties, in particular executions, arrests or
detention.

 

12 – We
urge States to ensure that human rights violations based on sexual
orientation or gender identity are investigated and perpetrators
held accountable and brought to justice;

 

13 – We
urge States to ensure adequate protection of human rights
defenders, and remove obstacles which prevent them from carrying
out their work on issues of human rights and sexual orientation and
gender identity.

 

 

《日惹原则》中文全文参见:http://www.aizhi.net/Soft.asp?action=SoftShow&SoftID=110

 

附录:《日惹原则》:女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋和跨性别人群权利的里程碑

            
专家制定性权利与性别平等的全球准则

 


“Yogyakarta Principles” a Milestone for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and
Transgender Rights


Experts Set Out Global Standards for Sexual Rights and Gender
Equality

《日惹原则》:女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋和跨性别人群权利的里程碑

            
专家制定性权利与性别平等的全球准则


 


 


(March 26, 2007, Geneva) —  A
groundbreaking set of principles on sexual orientation, gender
identity, and international law is a landmark advance in the
struggle for basic human rights as well as gender equality, Human
Rights Watch and the Center for Women’s Global Leadership said
today. The document, known as the Yogyakarta Principles after the
city where it was adopted, was launched today in Geneva by a group
of 29 international human rights
experts. 

2007326,日内瓦)这一系列突破性的关于性倾向与性别认同原则和国际法的出台,是争取基本人权和性别平等斗争中具有里程碑意义的进步《人权观察》与全球妇女领导组织中心今天发表评论。


 


“These  principles establish basic
standards for how governments should treat people whose rights are
too often denied and whose dignity is too often reviled,” said
Scott Long, director of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender
Rights Program at Human Rights
Watch.  “Firmly grounded in law and
precedent, they enshrine a simple idea: human rights do not admit
exceptions.”


 

《人权观察》女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋和跨性别权利项目主任斯科特.朗说这些原则为政府如何对待那些权利得不到承认,尊严得不到认可的人群提供了基本的准则,在严格的立法与先例援引基础上,它们铭记了一个简朴的理念——人权面前没有例外。


The “Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Law
in Relation to Issues of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity”
were adopted by a meeting of experts in international law in
Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in November
2006.  They confirm legal standards
for how governments and other actors should end violence, abuse,
and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender
people, and ensure full
equality. 


 

200611月,在印度尼西亚日惹举办的国际法学专家会议上,通过了将国际人权法应用到性倾向和性别认同相关问题的《日惹原则》。这些原则确立政府与行为主体停止对女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋和跨性别人群的暴力、虐待和歧视的法律标准,确保充分的平等。


The experts launching the principles include a former United
Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, as well as UN
independent experts, members of UN treaty bodies, judges,
activists, and academics. Human Rights Watch was part of a
secretariat supporting the work of the experts who developed the
principles. The Center for Women’s Global Leadership was a member
of the advisory committee to the secretariat.

发起这些原则的专家有联合国人权高级官员,联合国的独立专家,联合国的各实体机构,法官,行动主义者与学术界的人士。《人权观察》作为秘书处,支持了专家制定原则的工作,全球妇女领导组织中心担任秘书处的顾问委员成员之一。


 


“For more than three decades, lesbians have been among the millions
of women’s rights activists pressing the international community to
put gender equality at the heart of the human rights agenda,” said
Charlotte Bunch, executive director of the Center for Women’s
Global Leadership.  “These sweeping
principles are a bold and important step
forward.  Addressing civil and
political as well as economic, social and cultural rights, they
show how sexual rights and gender equality are inextricably
interwoven with the full scope of rights protections.”


 

60多年来,女同性恋人群也参与了,数以百万计的妇女维权行动主义者推动国际社会,促成性别平等成为人权会议中心议题的活动,全球妇女领导组织中心的高级执行主任夏洛蒂说道,这些触动根基的原则是勇敢的、重要的一步,它们涉及到了公民权利、政治、经济、社会和文化权利,这表明性的权利、性别平等与人权保护的整个范畴是交织在一起,不可分割的。


The Yogyakarta Principles were developed in response to
well-documented patterns of abuse around the
globe.  These abuses, perpetrated
because of actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender
identity, have affected
millions. 

《日惹原则》是对全球范围内的有文记载的、各种形式虐待做出回应的基础上形成的。这些虐待因事实上的或者被认为是不同性倾向与性别认同方面的原因而发生,影响到了数百万的人群。


 


The principles address:


1
        

rape and other forms of gender-based violence;


2
        

extrajudicial executions;


3
        

torture and other forms of cruel, inhuman and degrading
treatment;


4
        

medical abuses;


5
        

repression of free speech and assembly; and


6
        

discrimination in work, health, education, housing, access to
justice, and immigration. 


 

这些原则针对:

1、强奸和其他形式的基于性别的暴力;

2、庭外行刑;

3、折磨和其他各种形式的残忍、非人道和侵犯人格的对待;

4、医治过程中的虐待;

5、禁止言论与集会的自由

6、工作、健康、教育、住房、寻求正义与移民方面的的歧视。


The principles also map out a positive road to full equality for
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people around the
world.  Each principle is accompanied
by detailed recommendations to states on how to end discrimination
and abuse. The principles also call for action from the UN’s human
rights system, national human rights institutions, the media,
non-governmental organizations, and others.


 

这些原则为世界范围内的女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋和跨性别的人群勾勒了一幅积极的图景。每条原则都附有详细的关于国家如何消除歧视与虐待的建议。原则也呼吁联合国人权系统、各国人权机构、媒体、非政府组织和其他团体采取行动。


The principles were launched today at the UN Human Rights Council’s
session in Geneva, where last year 54 states called for the Council
to act against egregious violations of the rights of lesbian, gay,
bisexual, and transgender people.


 

今天在日内瓦的联合国人权委员会会议上发布这些原则,而去年在这里,54个国家曾联名呼吁委员会采取行动反对严重侵犯女同性恋、男同性恋,双性恋和跨性别人群权利的行为。


The full text of the Yogyakarta Principles, along with supporting
materials, can be found online at

http://yogyakarta.supportequality.ca

.


 

《日惹原则》的全文及其附属文件,请在以下网站获取。http://yogyakarta.supportequality.ca

.

 

 

The experts who adopted the Yogyakarta
Principles are:

 


Philip Alston

(Australia), UN Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary and
arbitrary executions and Professor of Law, New York University
School of Law, USA


Maxim Anmeghichean

(Moldova), European Region of the International Lesbian and Gay
Association


Mauro Cabral

(Argentina), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, International Gay and
Lesbian Human Rights Commission


Sonia Onufer Corrêa

(Brazil), Research Associate at the Brazilian Interdisciplinary
AIDS Association (ABIA) and co-chair of the International Working
Group on Sexuality and Social Policy (Co-Chair of the experts’
meeting)


Yakin Ertürk

(Turkey), UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women,
Professor, Department of Sociology,

Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey


Elizabeth Evatt

(Australia), Former member and chair of the UN Committee on the
Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, former member of the
UN Human Rights Committee and Commissioner of the International
Commission of Jurists


Paul Hunt

(New Zealand), UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest
attainable standard of health and professor, Department of Law,
University of Essex, United Kingdom


Asma Jahangir

(Pakistan), Chairperson, Human Rights Commission of
Pakistan


Maina Kiai

(Kenya), Chairperson of the Kenya National Commission on Human
Rights


Miloon Kothari

(India), UN Special Rapporteur on the right to adequate
housing


Judith Mesquita

(United Kingdom), Senior Research Officer, Human Rights Centre,
University of Essex, United Kingdom


Alice M. Miller

(United States of America), Assistant Professor, School of Public
Health, Co-Director, Human Rights Program, Columbia
University


Sanji Mmasenono Monageng

(Botswana), Judge of the High Court (The Republic of the Gambia),
Commissioner of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’
Rights, Chairperson of the Follow Up Committee on the
implementation of the Robben Island Guidelines on prohibition and
prevention of Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment (African Commission on Human and Peoples’
Rights)


Vitit Muntarbhorn

(Thailand), UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in
the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and professor of Law at Chulalongkorn University,
Thailand
(Co-Chair of the experts’ meeting)


Lawrence

Mute

(Kenya), Commissioner with the Kenya National Commission on Human
Rights


Manfred Nowak

(Austria), Professor and co-Director of the Ludwig Boltzmann
Institute of Human Rights, Austria and UN Human Rights Council
Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment


Ana Elena Obando Mendoza

(Costa Rica), feminist attorney, women’s human rights activist, and
international consultant


Michael O’Flaherty

(Ireland), Member of the UN Human Rights Committee and Professor of
Applied Human Rights and Co-Director of the Human Rights Law Centre
at the University of Nottingham (Rapporteur for the development of
the Yogyakarta Principles)


Sunil Pant

(Nepal), President of the Blue Diamond Society, Nepal


Dimitrina Petrova

(Bulgaria), Executive Director, The Equal Rights Trust


Rudi Muhammad Rizki

(Indonesia), UN Special Rapporteur on international solidarity and
senior Lecturer and the Vice Dean for Academic Affairs of the
Faculty of Law at the University of Padjadjaran,
Indonesia


Mary Robinson

(Ireland), Founder of Realizing Rights: The Ethical Globalization
Initiative and former President of
Ireland and former United Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights


Nevena Vuckovic Sahovic

(Serbia and Montenegro), Member of the UN Committee on the Rights
of the Child and President of the Child Rights Centre, Belgrade,
Serbia Montenegro


Martin Scheinin

(Finland), UN Special Rapporteur on counter-terrorism and professor
of Constitutional and International Law, Director of the Institute
for Human Rights


Wan Yanhai

(China), founder of the AIZHI Action Project and director of
Beijing AIZHIXING Institute of Health Education


Stephen Whittle

(United Kingdom), Professor in Equalities Law at Manchester
Metropolitan University, United Kingdom


Roman Wieruszewski

(Poland), Member of the UN Human Rights Committee and head of
Poznan Centre for Human Rights, Poland


Robert Wintemute

(United Kingdom), Professor of Human Rights Law, School of Law,
King’s College London, United Kingdom



[]
新华网:《我国将制定首份<国家人权行动计划>》,
http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2008-11/04/content


_10303745_1.htm

(2008-11-04)


[]

可参见:《日惹原则》序言部分。


[]

可参见:《日惹原则》序言部分。

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