任志强 | 建立我国住房保障制度的政策研究(1)

2012年04月27日 22:28:55

  建立我国住房保障制度的政策研究
   天则经济研究所
   2011年11月
   摘  要
   l  中国的住房制度经历了以广覆盖、低水平的福利分房到住房市场化的过程。住房市场化使大多数人的住房条件在短时间内有了迅速改善,但也同时伴随着住房差距的扩大和政府保障功能的收缩。
   l  从2007年政府重新强调承担住房保障责任,尝试建立新的住房保障制度,加强住房保障力度。
   l  现行的住房保障制度存在一系列的问题
   ü  住房制度、土地制度和住房保障制度作为一个有机联系的整体缺乏顶层设计和长远考虑。
   ü  现行住房保障制度没有减少反而增加了社会不公平,特别是不公开销售的经济适用房已经成为政府和国有部门将国有资源转化为私人财产的“合法”渠道。
   ü  政府对于住房保障的责任没有清晰界定,现行住房保障制度的保障对象没有完全覆盖最需要住房保障的群体,却覆盖了收入和住房都不是最困难的群体,结果是进一步扩大而不是缩小了住房差距。
   ü  现行保障房制度扭曲了土地和住房市场,严重损害了市场效率。
   ü  现行保障房制度的实施机制不健全,包括筹资、融资、运营、监管等机制均不能适应需求。
   ü  外部制度环境对住房供给和住房保障存在不利影响:扭曲的经济发展方式和土地管理制度增加了对保障房的需求;实际上发挥了住房保障功能的“小产权”廉价住房被制度认定为“非法”。
   l  近几年,我国保障房重点开始转向公租房建设,但基本都是由政府投资建设,巨大的资金需求给地方财政造成了很大的压力。政策执行中出现的主要问题包括:(1)保障房项目由于缺少资金不能按时推进;(2)为了缓解资金压力,地方政府一次性收取多年租金;(3)政府出售公租房和廉租房换取资金回流。这些做法不仅降低了政府的声誉,也扭曲了保障房的性质,降低了保障的功能和效率。
   l  住房保障的必要性和理论依据:从世界范围来看,大多数国家都认同居住权属于基本经济人权,所以都会程度不同地提供住房保障。根据边际效用递减理论,在合理的范围内进行再分配时,富人所减少的效用要小于穷人所增加的效用,所以全社会的效用是增加的。这从全社会效用的角度为取富济贫提供了合理性依据。相反,如果不是取富济贫,住房保障就失去了意义。
   l  中国住房保障制度设计的原则
   ü  公平原则——一是要取富济贫而不能取贫济富;二是实施结果要缩小而不是扩大住房差距;
   ü  效率原则——尽量减少对市场的干扰,减少资源的浪费;
   ü  基本保障原则——只提供最基本住房条件,而不能导致非保障对象对保障房利益的追逐;
   ü  普遍保障原则——一是对符合条件的保障对象应保尽保,二是不应存在歧视政策,特别是对城市户籍人口与非户籍常住人口应同等对待;
   ü  多层次保障原则。
   l  我国住房保障制度框架设计
   ü  我国住房制度的顶层设计
   n  将土地用途管理与产权管理相分离,土地用途变更实行审批制,土地产权管理尊重市场,按市场规则进行交易。
   n  住房供求应以市场调节为主,市场失灵时政府可以且应当以建立住房保障制度等方式介入,但必须是有限介入,防止过度介入对市场造成根本性的破坏。
   n  鼓励房屋出租,大力培育稳定的住房租赁市场,降低租赁成本。
   n  充分发挥小产权房在平抑房价、提供保障方面的作用,近期应当制定规则、加强监管,长远应当统一住房产权管理制度。
   ü  政府的保障责任和职能
   n  理性确定政府的住房保障责任,确立“有限政府”理念,政府不包办解决百姓的住房,一般住房应通过市场解决,政府只为住房最困难者提供协助。
   n  政府在住房保障方面的责任必须是具体的和可问责的。
   n  区分政府责任与履行责任的途径。在住房保障筹资、融资、建设、分配、运营等不同环节,政府都可以有多种途径履行住房保障责任。根据不同情形,政府可以直接提供保障住房,也可以援助保障对象在市场获得住房。
   ü  保障范围:保障标准和保障范围不宜一开始就定的太高,可以先采用略低的标准,随着经济社会的发展再适当调整。目前应将在城市常住的最低收入且住房困难家庭(包括户籍及非户籍人口)全部纳入保障范围,如果财力允许,再从低收入向高收入依次将低收入、中等偏低收入住房困难家庭纳入保障范围。城市户籍人口保障标准建议按平均15平方米/人考虑,城市非户籍人口保障标准则可按平均10平方米/人考虑。
   ü  保障程度:建立分层次保障制度。根据收入和住房标准,设定不同程度的租金补贴额度。可设置80%、50%、25%和0%四个等级。补贴为零的含义是:稳定的、租金受到涨幅限制的住房也是一种补贴。并且租金的稳定性有利于抑制市场上住房租金价格的大幅波动。
   ü  保障形式:住房保障可从产权和补贴两个角度进行分类。从产权的角度来看,住房保障可分为产权性质的保障房和使用权性质的保障房两种,从补贴的角度来说,住房保障的补贴方式有货币补贴和实物补贴两类。我国住房保障制度改革的目标是“使用权形式的保障房+货币补贴”。当前应立即停止提供不公开销售的经济适用房,近中期要逐步停止产权形式保障房、逐步扩大使用权形式保障房,逐步停止实物补贴的保障形式,逐步扩大货币补贴的保障形式。
   ü  保障房与商品房的关系:从发达国家走过的道路看,保障房与商品房市场的关系经历了三个阶段:独立于房地产市场并封闭运行的保障房体系,相对封闭的保障房体系但可与房地产市场有条件联通,统一的房地产市场+货币补贴为主的保障制度。目前我国的住房保障体系处于第一和第二个阶段的过度时期,未来应逐步向第三个阶段过渡,即逐步走向统一的房地产市场,住房保障以货币补贴为主。
   ü  保障性住房用地供应制度:从长远看,未来以货币补贴为主的住房保障制度确立以后,就不再存在专门针对保障性住房供应土地的问题。目前应立即停止向不公开销售的经济适用房提供土地,包括使用“自用土地”和新划拨土地。近中期应增加土地供应的透明度,并随着货币补贴保障形式的扩大,逐步减少以行政划拨方式供应土地。
   ü  保障房筹资和融资机制:如果存在有效的资本市场,采取一次性投资的方式和逐年提供资金的方式为住房保障提供支持,两种选择是等价的,这是政府可通过市场机制解决资金困境的依据。因此政府应转变理念,通过多种途径履行住房保障责任。可以将相应的融资责任转移给企业,政府根据自己承担的保障责任向市场提供支持,则政府所掌握的同等数量资金可以为更多的保障房提供支持,这既是服务提供方式的改革,也是融资的创新。
   ü  保障房运营机制:首先,政府直接提供运营的保障房应实行管办分离;其次,针对目前的资金困境,政府应提供支持,鼓励市场提供并运营保障性住房,包括BOT、TOT,从市场购买住房产权或使用权再用于保障房,制定政策鼓励现有住房进入租赁市场等方式;再次,要培育健康稳定的租赁住房市场,引导市场增加供给,鼓励商业性和公益性的住房租赁机构发展。
   l  住房保障制度改革的目标:现有的住房保障体系是一个独立于房地产市场并封闭运行的体系,通过逐步改革,将经历一个相对封闭但可与房地产市场有条件联通的保障体系的过渡阶段,最终发展为一个统一的房地产市场,住房保障以货币补贴为主,通过市场来实现。
   Abstract
   l  The Housing System of China has experienced the process of welfare-oriented public housing distribution system, featured as widely-covering and low-level, to Housing Marketization. The Housing Marketization improved people’s housing conditions quickly. However, it is accompanied by the expanding of housing gaps well as the withdrawing of government’s housing security function.
   l  From the year of 2007, government re-emphasized its responsibility of housing security, followed by the attempt to establish a new housing security system and to strengthen the housing security level.
   l  There are series of problems for current housing security system.
   ü  As an organic union of housing system, land system and housing secruty system, this union is in shortage of top design and shortsighted.
   ü  The current housing security system deteriorate the social justice, especially those affordable housing, sold non-publicly, has turned out to be the “legitimate channel” to transfer the state owned resource into private property for government and state owned departments.
   ü  The government’s responsibility of housing security is not clearly defined, and the current system does not cover those who need housing security mostly but covers those who are not most urgently longing for houses in terms of income and housing conditions, inevitably leading to the expanding rather than diminishing the housing gap.
   ü  The contemporary housing security system distorts the land and property market and severely damages the efficiency of market.
   ü  The implementation mechanism of current housing security system is imperfect, i.e. the mechanisms of fund-raising, financing, operating and monitoring are insufficient to demand.
   ü  The external institutional environment is unfavorable for the housing supply and housing security: the distorted development mode and land administrative system increase the demand of security housing, and houses with limited property, actually play the role of housing security function, are considered  illegal.
   l  Recently, the emphase of security housing has began to shift to public rental housing, whose huge capital demand leads to a enormous finance pressure for local governments for the majority of the investment is made by local governments. The primary problems when executing policies comprise: (1) the project of security housing cannot be completed in time for the shortage of fund; (2) local governments collect rents of several years in one lump sum to alleviate the finance pressure; (3) public rental house and low-rent house are sold to recover the fund. These deeds not only tarnish the government reputation, but also distort the nature of security housing, resulting in the poor function and low efficiency of the security.
   l  The necessity and theory foundation of housing security: from a wide world view, most countries agree that the right of habitation belongs to basic human rights so that they providehousing to different degree. According to the principle of decreasing marginal utility, when redistributing in reasonable scope, the loss of utility of the rich is less than that gained of the poor, therefore the total social utility is increasing. Thus, it is justifiable to “robbing” the rich to help the poor, and contrarily, if not, the housing security is meaningless.
   l  The principle of designing China’s housing security system
   ü  Principle of justice—seizing the rich to help the poor, but not vice versa; diminishing rather than enlarging housing gap.
   ü  Principle of efficiency—intervencing the market as little as possible so that minimizing the waste of resources.
   ü  Principle of basic security—supplying only necessary housing conditions, but not tempting the unqualified people to pursue the interest of security housing.
   ü  Principle of universal security—protecting those qualified as wide as possible; and eliminating the discrimination policy, especially equally treat people without the standard of Hukou system.
   ü  Principle of multiple levels security.
   l  The framework design of China’s housing security system
   ü  The top design
   n  Separate the land utilization propose administration and the property administration. Launch the Approval System concerning the change of land utilization propose. The administration of land property should respect to the market.Trade according to the market principle.
   n  The supply and demand of housing should be dominated by market. Government should and be obliged to establish the housing security system when  market failure happens, but this intervention has to be restricted so that essential damage to the house market can be prevented
   n  Encourage house renting market and enthusiastically cultivate house renting market, and cut the cost of house renting.
   n  The role of those House with limited property can be played sufficiently so that house price can be restrained and the housing security can be enhanced. Constitute the rule and strengthen the regulation in the near future while unify the management system of housing property in the long run.
   ü  The responsibility and function of government
   n  Reasonably define the responsibility of government’s housing securityand establish the concept of “limited government”, indicating that government should not be thoroughly responsible for people’s housing but the market should be, while the government should only cover those people in bad need.
   n  The responsibility of government concerning the housing security has to be specific and accountable.
   n  Distinguish the responsibility of government and the approach to assume the responsibility. Government can take its responsibility in various ways in different ways, like fund-raising, financing, construction, distribution, operationand other chains of housing security. According to distinct situation, government can provide the house directly, or help those in need obtain the house in market.
   ü  The scope of security: The standard and range of security should not be made too high in the beginning and the relatively lower standard can be seated, which can be remodified with the development of economy. At the present, the people that included in this securitysystem are those of lowest income and confronted with inhabitation difficulties (without considering Hukou system). If the budget is enouth, the low-income, lower-middle-income housing for needy families can be covered in terms of income. The security standard for urban Hukou population is recommended at an average of 15 square meters / person, while the security standard for urban population without residential Hukou can be based on an average 10 square meters / person.
   ü  The degree of security:  Hierarchical security system must be established.Different degrees of rent subsidy can be designed according to income and standard of housing.The feasible subsidy degrees consist of 80%, 50%, 25% and 0%. The 0% subsidy means the housing of stable rents or the limited rent growth is also a kind of subsidy. Besides, the stable rent benefits to restrain the considerable fluctuation of housing rent.
   ü  The form of security: the housing security can be classified from two perspectives: property and subsidy. In the perspective of property, housing security can be classified as ownership security and use rights security. In the perspective of subsidy, the formality includes money subsidy and material object subsidy. The goal of reform of China’s housing security should be the union of ownership security and money subsidy. The supply of non-public sold Affordable Houses should be stopped immediately, and in the near future, gradually eliminate the security housing of ownership rights while expanding the security Housing in use rights, progressively suspend the subsidy of material object while extending the form of money subsidy.
   ü  The relationship between the security housing and Commercial Housing: from the experience of developed countries, this relationship went through three phases: independent commercial house market paralleled with closed security housing system; the relatively closed security housing system which can conditionally connect to the commercial house market; the unified real estate market accompanied with security housing dominated by money subsidy. Nowadays, China’s security housing system located in the stage of transferring from the first to the second one, and in the future, this system should further step into the third stage, that is, progressively towards the unified real estate market, predominated by money subsidy as the security housing system.
   ü  The land supply system of security housing: in the long term, once the housing security system with the money subsidy as the characteristic is established, there are no longer land supply problems specific for security housing. In present, the supply of land for Affordable Housing should be terminated immediately, includingthe “self use land” and new appropriated land. In theshort and medium run, the transparency of land supply should be improved, and gradually abate the land supply by means of government appropriation along with the expansion of money subsidy.
   ü  The funding and financing of security housing system: it is equivalent to support security housing by adopting the one-time or annual financing approaches if the capital market is effective, which is the basis for government to solve the financing problems by market mechanism. Therefore, government should change ideas and assume the responsibility through multiple measures. The responsibility of financing can be shifted to enterprises, while the government supports the market according to its own security responsibility. Thus, more security housing can be supported by the same amount of fund, which is not only the reformation of service pattern but also the innovation of financing.
   ü  The mechanism of security housing: firstly, the management and operation should be separated when government directly supply the security houses; secondly, considering the shortage of fund, government should support and it is encouraged to provide and operate security housing through market mechnism, including BOT, TOT, purchasing the houses with property rights or usage rights and then reuse them for security housing, and making policy to encourage existing houses to enter rental housing market; finally, government should nurture healthy and stable rental housing market, lead the market to increase supply, encourage the development of commercial and public welfare housing leasing agencies.
   l  Suggestions are provided for the implementing mechanisms of security housing including fund-raising, financing, operation and supervision.
   l  The goal of housing security system reform: the current the housing security system is a closed operating system which is independent of real estate market, and through the progressive reform, a transitive phase of relatively closed but conditionally connected with real estate market security system will be experienced, and finally a unified real estate market will be formed.Housing security is implemented by market and predominated by money subsidy.

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2012年4月27日, 10:36 上午
分类: 公民博客