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艾滋病

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获得性免疫缺陷综合征(英語:acquired immune deficiency syndrome,缩写为AIDS,音译为艾滋病),源自于一种反轉錄病毒——人類免疫缺乏病毒(英語:human immunodeficiency virus,缩写为HIV)感染后,导致免疫系統被破壞,逐漸成為許多伺機性疾病的攻擊目標,进而促成多種臨床症狀。HIV為脆弱的RNA病毒,如暴露在空氣中,依照病毒量多寡会在幾秒鐘至幾分鐘之內全數死亡。HIV特性原本即特別脆弱且不能接觸空氣,HIV的感染大多於較封閉環境,如血管裡面傳播(輸血/共用針筒方式等), 陰道或肛門直腸的環境(如無套陰交、肛交),透過潛藏在血液、精液、陰道分泌液、母乳等傳染,不包括唾液, 汗液, 尿液或其他體液。一般情况下,接吻不会造成感染HIV。(维基百科艾滋病)

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