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(cǎo ní mǎ): Grass-mud horse |+|
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|−|The term grass-mud horse , which sounds nearly the same in Chinese as “f*** your mother” (cáo nǐ mā), was originally created as a way to get around, and also poke fun at, government censorship of vulgar content. After netizens created an online video depicting the grass-mud horse at war with and eventually defeating the [[river crab]], a homonym for "harmony," a propaganda catchword, the idea caught fire and the video became a viral hit. Netizens continually expanded the lore of the grass-mud horse by creating [ http:// www. youtube.com/ index?ytsession=zm-9V9QOto3Qs-zl8JhwkqPj-crdBEfQvL0nV-1ehucx5j_oRBVc0XBTXvLdWH2qOogkB3yzoSyKkXiwVhzm9qR6L-M3A0K3XPsgcDlC8FwqXSS5_9a5AwhPBF-Pqf0rhVZsYFYBSgA6YrFcG-kVDcv-MBiigwWkOA9EMg9aQ28hyLaAkAT14wZsw9eKr26G0QpFN9Y8KBlWi1Utx6Uo1Qx3Z24bAN9xtS4cMhCkVxU9EYFdmoX19azHEMa2-eR-Qe_DMcRtShlXvxxUATNRUo4cZ_8dj9SV0sfzJMxl2y_Bj5oPOQfIxI8ngIv4buQhZ3054X8lL28Mf_4egjJf_NeMG-BpFvJDShS3tZs4MRYUgfebmmFe5zkFy0sDydM8urJSeRFtp2Yz4uetkDCvFq_1r2ttw1aihMDrT_0mqKYN0Pol50KbHXyxqwdypKXT catchy songs] and [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOqeq-p5dYE&feature=related fake nature documentaries] on YouTube and other video sharing sites. |+|
-mudhorse.-mud horse . [://..com/ ]]
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|−|The phrase is especially meaningful on a political level because the Communist Party is often described as "the mother" of the people--thus the phrase, "f*** your mother" can also suggest "f** the Party." The grass-mud horse is one of many [[mythical creatures]] created by netizens in response to increasingly strict censorship measures. |+|
of , of censorship.
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term has since developed an additional meaning: one who is a “grass-mud horse” is someone who is web-savvy and critical of government attempts at censorship. As one Chinese blogger explained, " “Grass Mud Horse (草泥马)” represents information and opinions that cannot be accepted by the mainstream discourse, and “the Song of the Grass Mud Horse” has become a [http://chinadigitaltimes.net/2009/ 03/ cui- weiping- 崔卫平- i- am-a-grass-mud- horse/ metaphor of the power struggle over Internet expression]. " |+|
The -mud government censorship . " and the Song of the GrassMud a [http://chinadigitaltimes.net/2009//-----grass-mud-/ of ].
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|−|For more on the grass-mud horse, see [http://chinadigitaltimes.net/china/grass-mud-horse/page/2/ China Digital Times]. |+|
the , .
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|−|[[File: gmh1. jpg|600px|thumb|center|'' While originally conceived as a zebra, the grass-mud horse is now depicted as an alpaca.'']] |+|
: .''grass-mud .
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|−|[[File:gmh2.jpg|400px|thumb|center|''An example of how "mythical creatures" such as the grass-mud horse, which were originally thinly veiled profanities, have become potent political symbols. Here a grass-mud horse is shown in place of "tank man," who stood before the tanks as they rolled into Tiananmen Square.'']] |+|
grass-mud horse is of ]]
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|−|[[File: gmh3.png|600px|thumb|center|''Paying respects to a snow grass-mud horse.'']] |+|
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File: gmh4.jpg|400px|thumb|center|''Made up character combining components of the characters, grass, mud and horse'']] |+|
|−|[[File:gmh5.jpg|600px|thumb|center|''[[Crouching grass- mud horse]] '']] | |
File: gmh6.jpg|600px|thumb|center| | |
|−|''[[Crazy grass- mud horse]]'']] | |
Mascot of Chinese netizens fighting for free expression, symbolizing defiance of Internet censorship.
The grass-mud horse, whose name sounds nearly the same as "fuck your mother" (cào nǐ mā 肏你妈), was originally created to skirt government censorship of vulgar content. Film scholar Cui Weiping draws a direct connection between the launch of the "Special Campaign to Rectify Vulgar Content on the Internet" in early 2009 and the appearance of the Song of the Grass-Mud Horse in February of that year. The idea caught fire after netizens made a video depicting the grass-mud horse defeating the river crab (héxiè 河蟹), whose name is a near-homonym for the propaganda catchword "harmony" (héxié 和谐). Netizens continually expanded the lore of the grass-mud horse by composing catchy songs, photo albums of its natural habitat, and fake nature documentaries.
The Communist Party is often described as the "mother" of the people, so saying "fuck your mother" also suggests "fuck the Party."
Tanlihanchaoren (@弹力晗超人): Uh ... # ¥% & * + "$ & ...posting, getting deleted, and then reposting. I can no longer find the words to describe the number of grass-mud horses that are currently on my mind. (May 27, 2015)
呃…#¥%&*+《$&…（写了又删 删了又写，然而我已经找不到话来表述我心中草泥马的数量了） [Chinese]
The grass-mud horse is one of many mythical creatures invented by netizens in response to increasingly strict censorship measures.
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