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Háma 蛤蟆

Jiang's 2000 tirade against a Hong Kong reporter is one of many memes about the former leader. (Source: Google Plus)

Put-down of former president Jiang Zemin that has become a term of endearment and nostalgia.

The Chinese public remembers Jiang Zemin the president (1989-2002) as an earthy, occasionally flippant leader. Jiang flaunted his wide belly as he floated in the Dead Sea, played the ukulele on his lap like a zither, quoted the Gettysburg Address on 60 Minutes, and scolded a Hong Kong reporter—in English— for being "too young... too simple, sometimes naive". Both Jiang's appearance and style have earned him the nickname "Toad." The name did not start off as a compliment, but over the years netizens have come to love the Toad's quirks and candor, especially in contrast with succeeding presidents: the wooden Hu Jintao and the hard-nosed, anti-Western Xi Jinping.

"Toad fans" (hásī 蛤丝), many of them millennials, are fond of quoting Jiang and spoofing his signature look, all with nostalgia for Jiang's personality and openness to the wider world. In July 2014, thick-framed glasses were added to photos of an inflatable yellow toad in Beijing, making the rounds on Weibo before the censors stepped in. When Jiang appeared at the Victory Day military parade in Beijing in 2015, some toad fans wished the former president a long life, subtly expressing their discontent with Xi Jinping. Jiang presided over China during a time of economic growth and relative political freedom, while Xi has consolidated power while restricting the media, the internet, and activism.

"Toad worship" (móhá 膜蛤) abounded on August 17, 2016, Jiang's 90th birthday. Weibo and WeChat users shared images of Jiang's face (or just his glasses) and the number 90, or simply wrote "+1s" to add a second to Jiang's life. Past rumors the Jiang had died spur toad fans to confer long life on the Toad in whatever way they can. The birthday celebrations were not noted in the Chinese press, but an offline celebration attracted the attention of the authorities, who feared rights defense lawyers and activists would use the occasion for "subversive" activities.

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